History of E-Bikes
Some information of the history of Electric Vehicles from E revolution. We are Thailand's best online electric vehicle superstore !
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Transportation is the most important aspect of life. It's what sets us apart. It's what has gifted humanity with the advantage in natural selection & intelligence. Electric bikes are a natural extension of this. An electric bicycle offers advantages over a conventional bike, including speed and convenience, it requires significantly less effort getting to your destination. Being the most efficient at this transport is what we do and we're lucky it can be great fun too !
Electric Bicycles are gaining in popularity everyday. The transformational shift is being driven from China & Europe. Two vastly different continents with a similar taste for efficient transport. Cars are now being manufactured with sliding bike racks. Cars have in-built re-charging devices for e-bikes. People are given incentives (free parking) to park a little further from city centers & commute by e-bike. From the elderly to young, the serious commuter to adventure seeker ! The fact remains that E-bikes, Pedelecs & Booster Bikes are the ideal way to get around locally. They are light, cheap, versatile & durable. Also, they encourage health, fitness & address environmental concerns. A major shift is happening now & in the future the human species will continue to utilise electric power as our preferred choice of transport. The shift is happening now !
Some interesting facts for you :
An electric bicycle, also known as a pedelec, e-bike or booster bike, is essentially a bicycle with an integrated electric motor, which can be used for propulsion. There are a great variety of e-bikes available worldwide, from e-bikes that only have a small motor to assist the rider's pedal-power (pedal-assists or pedelecs) to somewhat more powerful e-bikes which tend closer to moped-style functionality: all, however, retain the ability to be pedalled by the rider and are therefore not electric motorcycles. E-bikes use rechargeable batteries and the lighter varieties can travel up to 25 to 45 km/h (16 to 28mph), depending on the laws of the country in which they are sold, while the more high-powered varieties can often do in excess of this. In some markets, such as Germany, they are gaining in popularity and taking some market share away from conventional bicycles, while in others, such as China, they are replacing fossil fuel-powered mopeds and small motorcycles.
Depending on local laws, many e-bikes are legally classified as bicycles rather than mopeds or motorcycles, so they are not subject to the more stringent laws regarding their certification and operation, unlike the more powerful two-wheelers which are often classed as electric motorcycles. E-bikes can also be defined separately and treated as a specific vehicle type in many countries.
E-bikes are the electric motor-powered versions of motorized bicycles, which have been around since the late 19th century.
In the 1890s, electric bicycles were documented within various U.S. patents. For example, on 31 December 1895, Ogden Bolton Jr. was granted for a battery-powered bicycle with “6-pole brush-and-commutator direct current (DC) hub motor mounted in the rear wheel.” There were no gears and the motor could draw up to 100 amperes (A) from a 10-volt battery.
Two years later, in 1897, Hosea W. Libbey of Boston invented an electric bicycle that was propelled by a “double electric motor”. The motor was designed within the hub of the crankset axle. This model was later re-invented and imitated in the late 1990s by Giant Lafree e-bikes. A bike equipped with an after market electric hub motor conversion kit, with the battery pack placed on the rear carrier rack.
By 1898 a rear-wheel drive electric bicycle, which used a driving belt along the outside edge of the wheel, was patented by Mathew J. Steffens. Also, the 1899 John Schnepf depicted a rear-wheel friction “roller-wheel” style drive electric bicycle. Schnepf's invention was later re-examined and expanded in 1969 by G.A. Wood Jr. Wood’s device used 4 fractional horsepower motors connected through a series of gears.
Torque sensors and power controls were developed in the late 1990s. For example, Takada Yutky of Japan filed a patent in 1997 for such a device. In 1992 Vector Services Limited offered and sold an e-bike dubbed Zike. The bicycle included NiCd batteries that were built into a frame member and included an 850 g permanent-magnet motor. Despite the Zike, in 1992 hardly any commercial e-bikes were available.
Production grew from 1993 to 2004 by an estimated 35%. By contrast, according to Gardner, in 1995 regular bicycle production decreased from its peak 107 million units.
Some of the less expensive e-bikes used bulky lead acid batteries, whereas newer models generally used NiMH, NiCd, and/or Li-ion batteries, which offered lighter, denser capacity batteries. Performance varies; however, in general there is an increase in range and speed with the latter battery types.
BLDC Bicycle Hub Motor
By 2001 the terms e-bike, power bike, pedelec, pedal-assisted, and power-assisted bicycle were commonly used to refer to e-bikes. The terms "electric motorbike" or "e-motorbike" refer to more powerful models that attain up to 80 km/h (50 mph).
In a parallel hybrid motorized bicycle, such as the aforementioned 1897 invention by Hosea W. Libbey, human and motor inputs are mechanically coupled either in the bottom bracket, the rear wheel, or the front wheel, whereas in a (mechanical) series hybrid cycle, the human and motor inputs are coupled through differential gearing. In an (electronic) series hybrid cycle, human power is converted into electricity and is fed directly into the motor and mostly additional electricity is supplied from a battery.
By 2007 e-bikes were thought to make up 10 to 20 percent of all two-wheeled vehicles on the streets of many major Chinese cities. A typical unit requires 8 hours to charge the battery, which provides the range of 25 to 30 miles (40 to 48 km), at the speed of around 20 km/h.
Different types of e-bikes
E-bikes are classed according to the power that their electric motor can deliver and the control system, i.e., when and how the power from the motor is applied. Also the classification of e-bikes is complicated as much of the definition is due to legal reasons of what constitutes a bicycle and what constitutes a moped or motorcycle. As such, the classification of these e-bikes varies greatly across countries.
Despite these legal complications, the classification of e-bikes is mainly decided by whether the e-bike's motor assists the rider using apedal-assist system or by a power-on-demand one. Definitions of these are as follows:
- With pedal-assist the electric motor is regulated by pedalling. The pedal-assist augments the efforts of the rider when they are pedalling. These e-bikes – called pedelecs – have a sensor to detect the pedalling speed, the pedalling force, or both. Brake activation is sensed to disable the motor as well.
- With power-on-demand the motor is activated by a throttle, usually handlebar-mounted just like on most motorcycles or scooters.
Therefore, very broadly, e-bikes can be classed as:
- E-bikes with pedal-assist only: either pedelecs (legally classed as bicycles) or S-Pedelecs (often legally classed as mopeds)
- Pedelecs: have pedal-assist only, motor assists only up to a decent but not excessive speed (usually 25 km/h), motor power up to 250 watts, often legally classed as bicycles
- S-Pedelecs: have pedal-assist only, motor power can be greater than 250 watts, can attain a higher speed (e.g., 45 km/h) before motor stops assisting, legally classed as a moped or motorcycle (not a bicycle)
- E-bikes with power-on-demand and pedal-assist
- E-bikes with power-on-demand only: often have more powerful motors than pedelecs but not always, the more powerful of these are legally classed as mopeds or motorcycles
E-bikes with pedal-assist only
E-bikes with pedal-assist only are usually called pedelecs but can be broadly classified into pedelecs proper and the more powerful S-Pedelecs.
The term "pedelec" (from pedal electric cycle) refers to an e-bike where the pedal-assist electric drive system is limited to a decent but not excessive top speed, and where its motor is relatively low-powered. Pedelecs are legally classed as bicycles rather than low-powered motorcycles or mopeds.
The most influential definition which distinguishes which e-bikes are pedelecs and which are not, comes from the EU. From the EU directive (EN15194 standard) for motor vehicles, a bicycle is considered a pedelec if:
- the pedal-assist, i.e. the motorised assistance that only engages when the rider is pedalling, cuts out once 25 km/h is reached, and
- when the motor produces maximum continuous rated power of not more than 250 watts (n.b. the motor can produce more power for short periods, such as when the rider is struggling to get up a steep hill).
An e-bike conforming to these conditions is considered to be a pedelec in the EU and is legally classed as a bicycle. The EN15194 standard is valid across the whole of the EU and has also been adopted by some non-EU European nations and also some jurisdictions outside of Europe (such as the state of Victoria in Australia).
Pedelecs are much like conventional bicycles in use and function — the electric motor only provides assistance, most notably when the rider would otherwise struggle against a headwind or be going uphill. Pedelecs are therefore especially useful for people living in hilly areas where riding a bike would prove too strenuous for many to consider taking up cycling as a daily means of transport. They are also useful when it would be helpful for the riders who more generally need some assistance, e.g. for elderly people.
More powerful pedelecs which are not legally classed as bicycles are dubbed S-Pedelecs (short for Schnell-Pedelecs, i.e. Speedy-Pedelecs) in Germany. These have a motor more powerful than 250 watts and less limited, or unlimited, pedal-assist, i.e. the motor does not stop assisting the rider once 25 km/h has been reached. S-Pedelec class e-bikes are therefore usually classified as mopeds or motorcycles rather than as bicycles and therefore may (depending on the jurisdiction) need to be registered and insured, the rider may need some sort of driver's license (either car or motorcycle) and motorcycle helmets may have to be worn.
E-bikes with power-on-demand and pedal-assist
Some e-bikes combine both pedal-assist sensors as well as a throttle. An example of these is the eZee Torq and Adventure 24+ by BMEBIKES.
E-bikes with power-on-demand only
Some e-bikes have an electric motor that operates on a power-on-demand basis only. In this case, the electric motor is engaged and operated manually using a throttle, which is usually on the handgrip just like the ones on a motorbike or scooter. These sorts of e-bikes often, but not always, have more powerful motors than pedelecs do.
With power-on-demand only e-bikes the rider can:
- ride by pedal power alone, i.e. fully human-powered.
- ride by electric motor alone by operating the throttle manually.
- ride using both together at the same time.
Please note that some power-on-demand only e-bikes can hardly be confused with, let alone categorised as, bicycles. For example, the Noped is a term used by the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario for e-bikes which do not have pedals or in which the pedals have been removed from their motorised bicycle. These are better categorised as electric mopeds or electric motorcycles.
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